Q: These bugs are on our maple tree. They look similar to a ladybug but want to know if these are friend or foe.
A: These are actually ladybug (lady beetle) pupae.
The ladybug lifecycle consists of four stages: egg, larva, pupa and adult. Your maple tree probably had lots of aphids on the leaves, so it served as a smorgasbord of food for the neighborhood ladybug population in summer.
I doubt these pupae will survive the cold winter but some might.
There are plenty of adults around in winter. Adult ladybugs cluster together in hollow trees and house walls and will emerge next spring.